What are organizations? Where do they come from? How are they transformed and adapted to new situations? In the digital age and in the global network society, traditional theories of the organization can no longer answer these questions. Based on actor-network theory, this book explains organizations as flexible, open networks in which both human and non-human actors enter into socio-technical assemblies by constantly negotiating and re-negotiating programs of action. Organizations are not macro social structures or autonomous systems operating behind the backs of individuals. Instead, they are scalable actor-networks guided by network norms of connectivity, flow, communication, participation, authenticity, and flexibility.
Social networks, an informal institutional arrangement, is one of the interactions that have an impact on policy success, especially in rural agricultural commercialization. Social network analysis is an important platform within which actors share information and resources to achieve their desired goals and objectives in an efficient way. Owing to these connections, social networks can, therefore, ease transmission of information or the flow of new ideas and other resources hence can be a desirable avenue by which farmers can commercialize their production. It´s therefore imperative that governments, NGOs and other stakeholders in policy formulations especially in Agriculture take advantage of social networks to ease the successful implementation of their policies.
Materialität gewinnt in der Soziologie seit den 1980er Jahren neue Aufmerksamkeit - thematisch wie theoretisch. Dinge, Artefakte, Stoffe und Texturen werden auf ihr Verwobensein mit dem Sozialen hin untersucht. Bestehende soziologische Theorien entwickeln Möglichkeiten der konzeptionellen Integration von Materialität; zugleich entstehen neuartige, mehr oder weniger sich als soziologisch verstehende Theorieansätze von der Praxistheorie bis hin zur Actor-Network Theory und dem Critical Realism. Der Band leistet eine Einführung in soziologisches Denken von Materialität. Die einzelnen Beiträge thematisieren unterschiedliche empirische Themen - vom Naturjoghurt bis zum Weltraum, von der Plastiktüte bis zum wissenschaftlichen Vortrag - und sie beziehen sich dabei auf ebenso unterschiedliche soziologische Theorie-Perspektiven.
Trotz eines breiten disziplinenübergreifenden Interesses wurden im deutschsprachigen Raum bisher kaum theoretische oder methodologische Ansätze entwickelt, um die sozialen und kulturellen Funktionen von Design und Designpraktiken zu analysieren. Dieses Buch stellt nun erstmalig verschiedene kultursoziologische und -theoretische Zugänge sowie exemplarische Fallstudien vor, die unterschiedliche Aspekte des Designs beleuchten - etwa soziale und kulturelle Gebrauchskontexte, Praktiken des Entwurfs, Fetischisierungsprozesse und ethisch-politische Fragen. Den Schwerpunkt bilden dabei praxistheoretische Ansätze sowie die Forschungsperspektive der Actor-Network-Theory, die um Aspekte der Affektivität und Ästhetik ergänzt werden.
Visions of Culture: A Reader, Second Edition, has been revised and expanded with new selections and is coordinated for use with Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists, Fifth Edition. Each selection is prefaced with a brief introduction about the anthropologist and the text. Each primary text is followed by a section titled ?Queries and Connections,? a series of questions designed to help students focus on the central issues in each text and to relate them to other readings.NEW TO THIS EDITIONPart VII: Neo-Darwinian Evolutionary Theories25: Leda Cosmides and John Toobey, from The Evolutionary Primer26: Eric Alden Smith, from Why Do Good Hunters Have Higher Reproductive Success?27. Robert Boyd and Peter Richerson, from ?Introduction? from The Origin and Evolution of CulturePart VIII?The Ontological Turn28: Philippe Descola, from Beyond Nature and Culture29: Tim Ingold, from Anthropology beyond Humanity30: Bruno Latour, from ?Introduction? from Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory
A powerful and innovative argument that explores the complexity of the human relationship with material things, demonstrating how humans and societies are entrapped into the maintenance and sustaining of material worlds * Argues that the interrelationship of humans and things is a defining characteristic of human history and culture * Offers a nuanced argument that values the physical processes of things without succumbing to materialism * Discusses historical and modern examples, using evolutionary theory to show how long-standing entanglements are irreversible and increase in scale and complexity over time * Integrates aspects of a diverse array of contemporary theories in archaeology and related natural and biological sciences * Provides a critical review of many of the key contemporary perspectives from materiality, material culture studies and phenomenology to evolutionary theory, behavioral archaeology, cognitive archaeology, human behavioral ecology, Actor Network Theory and complexity theory
Social theory is a crucial resource for the social sciences. It provides rich insights into how human beings think and act, and how contemporary social life is constructed. But often the key ideas of social theorists are expressed in highly technical and difficult language that can hide more than it reveals. The new edition of this popular book continues to cut to the core of what social theory is about. Covering key themes from the classical thinkers onwards, including Marxism, post-structuralism, phenomenology, feminism and more, the second edition features new material on Actor-Network Theory and an enhanced discussion of post-colonial theory. Wide-ranging in scope and coverage, the book is concise in presentation and free from jargon. Showing why social theory matters, and why it is of far-reaching social and political importance, the new edition is ideal for students seeking a clear, crisp mapping of a complex but very rewarding area.
Seminar paper from the year 2018 in the subject Information Management, grade: 1,7, University of Münster (Information Systems and Information Management), language: English, abstract: Digitalization transforms organizations, professions, politics, education and even the cultural sector, for instance the music industry where this study belongs to. Digital disruption, collaboration and change have affected the music distribution process. But how exactly? And did it influence the balance of power among the actors involved? The study uses Actor-Network Theory to represent the distribution networks of two artists before and after the start of the digital age: Michael Jackson, as the most successful artist of the 80s; and Macklemore, as the first artist being No.1 without label-backing. The tracing of their socio-technical networks shows that labels controlled the distribution channels in the past, but digitalization has shifted some power from the label to the artist. It enabled him to handle the distribution process largely on his own. Due to streaming services distributing music is way more efficient nowadays and artists can reach a huge community of streaming users. Social media enables collaboration and new partnerships in the music industry, which are not restricted to an artist´s familiar environment. Additionally, it is a platform for viral marketing enabling a closer relationship between artists and their fans. Overall, digitalization has broken up the enduring domination of the major labels and empowered artists to become successful without the backing of them.
What objects exist in the social world and how should we understand them? Is a specific Pizza Hut restaurant as real as the employees, tables, napkins and pizzas of which it is composed, and as real as the Pizza Hut corporation with its headquarters in Wichita, the United States, the planet Earth and the social and economic impact of the restaurant on the lives of its employees and customers? In this book the founder of object-oriented philosophy develops his approach in order to shed light on the nature and status of objects in social life. While it is often assumed that an interest in objects amounts to a form of materialism, Harman rejects this view and develops instead an ´´immaterialist´´ method. By examining the work of leading contemporary thinkers such as Bruno Latour and Levi Bryant, he develops a forceful critique of ´actor-network theory´. In an extended discussion of Leibniz´s famous example of the Dutch East India Company, Harman argues that this company qualifies for objecthood neither through ´what it is´ or ´what it does´, but through its irreducibility to either of these forms. The phases of its life, argues Harman, are not demarcated primarily by dramatic incidents but by moments of symbiosis, a term he draws from the biologist Lynn Margulis. This book provides a key counterpoint to the now ubiquitous social theories of constant change, holistic networks, performative identities, and the construction of things by human practice. It will appeal to anyone interested in cutting-edge debates in philosophy and social and cultural theory.